What is homogenization?

Homogenization, or homogenisation, is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout. This is achieved by turning one of the liquids into a state consisting of extremely small particles distributed uniformly throughout the other liquid. In other words, homogenization is the process of converting two immiscible liquids into an emulsion. 

Genizer homogenization technology applies a microfluidics Diamond Interaction Chamber (DIXC) to produce uniform nanoparticles in high shear homogenizers. The processed fluid passes through the fixed geometry within the Y-type and Z-type microfluidics chamber (which can also be considered a continuous microreactor) to create a uniform processing profile. Through this method, oil-in-water and water-in-oil nanoemulsions (100–1000 nm) can be produced.

High pressure nozzel, impact valve or microfludics chamber (microreactor)?

High pressure homogenization process pumps are able to deliver 100-300 MPa hydrostatic pressure to a liquid before any restriction to flow is imposed, regardless of the flow rate. Current industrial, pilot, and lab-scale high pressure homogenizers are equipped with plunger-like pumps and valves, nozzles, or chambers made from abrasion-resistant ceramics or hard gemstones. Three traits characterize effective homogenization: cavitation (Figure A), impact (Figure B), and shear. The valves, nozzles, or chambers promote one or a combination of these traits. 
Selection Guide for Chamber Types

Type of Chamber Cavitation Nozzle (Figure A) Impact Valve (Figure B) Y-Type Chamber (Figure C)
Application High viscosity liquid,
suspension or paste
Food, Beverage Pharmaceutical Emulsion,
Advantage Old Style Use for Food High Efficacy

Genizer Y type Diamond Interaction Chamber


Three-Types Homogenizing Mechanism in History
The Y-type interaction chamber (Figure C), regarded as one of the most powerful chambers to date, has been used by several manufacturers, including Microfluidics (Y-type interaction chamber), Avestin (static homogenizing valve) and Nanomizer (collision-type generator). In these systems, the flow stream is split into two channels that are redirected over the same plane at right angles and propelled into a single flow stream. The high pressure produces a high speed at the crossover of the two flows, which results in high shear, turbulence, and cavitation over the single outbound flow stream.

The Y-type chamber is generally made of two blocks of diamond or ceramic with a very small opening (nozzle) of 50~400μm in diameter. Two block-forming members are first ground and lapped to be optically flat. Then, grooves corresponding to the desired sizes and shapes are etched into the face of each block in precise alignment. Homogenization energy is concentrated at the collision point where the liquid streams collide in the internal drain.

Y-Type Chamber made by two blocks of optically flat disk

Y-type chamber made by two blocks of optically flat disk

Pressure and chamber selection for various applications with NanoGenizer

Cells Mammalian cell
Mammalian cell
Insect cellInsect cell Bacteria cellBacteria cell Yeast cellYeast cell Algae cellAlgae cell SPore
Sample CHO|Hela Sf9|Sf21|H5 E. Coli   Yeast Green algaea Ganoderma
Pressure 600-800bar   8500-11500psi 600-1000bar 8500-14500psi 800-1000bar 11500-14500psi 1200-1400bar 17500-20000psi 1200-1500bar 7500-21500psi 1300-1600bar 18500-23000psi
Chamber F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y

Emulsions Oil in water emulsions
Fat emulsion| Prostaglandin
Water in oil emulsionsCosmetics Oil emulsionDimethicone|Fuel FoodMilk Liposome (o/w)Doxorubicin Liposome (w/o)
Sample Fat emulsion| Prostaglandin Cosmetics Dimethicone|Fuel Milk Doxorubicin DNA|lipopolyplex
Pressure ~20,000psi ~10,000psi ~20,000psi ~10,000psi ~20,000psi ~8,000psi
Chamber F20Y, F12Y F20Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y

Dispersions Pigments
Inks, Coatings
Drugs/CreamsNorfloxacin, Isoxyl BatteryLithium/Solar cell Particle aggregationNano fibril GrapheneGraphene Nanotubes
Carbon Nanotubes
Sample Inks, Coatings Norfloxacin, Isoxyl Lithium/Solar cell Nano fibril Graphene Carbon Nanotubes
Pressure ~20,000psi ~20,000psi ~20,000psi ~25,000psi ~50,000psi
(single layer)
Chamber F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y